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Discovery of a gene related to 'individual differences in depression'
Title Discovery of a gene related to ‘individual differences in depression‘
Department Public Relations & Cooperation Team Date 2019-04-29
Attachments png The expression of the Gadd45b gene increased in the group susceptible to stress due to Chronic Social Defeat Stress.png

Discovery of a gene related to 'individual differences in depression'

- Publication by Dr. Ja Wook Koo and Dr. Yoon Ha Jeong of KBRI in an international journal
- Identifying molecular mechanism on stress that causes depression


□  The Korea Brain Research Institute (KBRI, President Pann Ghill Suh) announced on Mar. 16 a joint research team of which Dr. Ja Wook Ku, Dr. Yoon Ha Jeong and Mount Sinai University were a part, discovered a new gene that causes depression under social stress.
 
□  The research outcome was published in the latest issue of Scientific Reports, an international journal with following paper name and author information:
   * Paper name: Gadd45b mediates depressive-like role through DNA demethylation
   * Author information: Benoit Labonté, Yun Ha Jeong (*co-first author, Korea Brain Research Institute), Eric Parise, Orna Issler, Mena Fatma, Olivia Engmann, Kyung-Ah Cho, Rachael Neve, Eric J. Nestler, Ja Wook Koo (corresponding author, Korea Brain Research Institute)
 
□ A greater effect on depression comes from genetic predisposition rather than acquired factors. In particular, social stress conditions such as continuous conflicts among individuals and violence are the main causes of depression. However, the reason why individuals show differences in the level of depression under social stress conditions has not been identified.
 
 ○ Even though it is known that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) * causes depressive behavior in nucleus accumbens, the compensation circuit of the brain, specific mechanism has not been identified.
     * Matters that are involved in the generation, differentiation and growth of neurons and the control of synapse functions
 
□ The research team found that the gene “Gadd45b” controls depressive behavior, which differs from one individual to another in the signal delivery system that includes BDNF through this research.
 
□ The research team studied the group that showed high levels of depressive behavior (groups susceptible to stress) after adding Chronic Social Defeat Stress (CSDS) to test animals (mice) and found that the expression of Gadd45b increased in that group.
 * Chronic Social Defeat Stress (CSDS): The stress expressed upon long-term exposure to closed and vertical relationships such as military service or bullying, which is the cause of depression
 
 ○ Gadd45b gene increased the depressive behavior by increasing the expression of some target genes, which are inhibited during normal times. In particular, it was found that the gene causes depressive behavior through “DNA demethylation” ‘where‘ the methyl (CH4) group that deters the activation is removed.
 
 ○ Gadd45b originally known as a gene that controls neural plasticity and works in the process of memory and learning. In this study, it was found for the first time, Gadd45b is also involved in the development of depression.
 
□ Ja Wook Ku, a senior researcher said “we will make an effort to find out why a certain individual is more susceptible to social stress and depression and whether this predisposition is inherited by children from their parents in the follow-up research”. “We hope that our achievement could help with the diagnosis of depression and research towards treatment,” he added.
 
Discovery of a gene related to 'individual differences in depression'
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